From Imam Sufyan ath-Thawree's (d.161H) creed, mentioned by Imam al-Laalikaa'ee in his tremendous book, Sharh Usool ul-I'tiqād Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama'ah (1/151-154):
"O Shu'ayb, what you have written will not benefit you until you:
- hold that prayer is to be performed behind every righteous or sinful person.
- hold that Jihaad is operative until the day of judgement
- hold that patience is necessary under the flag (i.e leadership) of the ruler (sultaan) whether he is oppressive or just.
Narrations about the ruler from the salaf
- Ziyaad ibn Kusaib al-Adawiyy said: "I was with Abu Bakrah beneath the minbar of ibn Aamir. He was giving a speech and was wearing a fine garment. So Abu Bilaal said, "Look at our ameer wearing the garment of the disobedient." Then Abu Bakrah said: "Be silent. I heard the messenger of Allāh say, "Whowever demeans the sultaan (ruler) of Allāh upon the earth Allāh will humiliate him."
(Sunan of at-Tirmidhi. no.2225)
- Anas ibn Malik, may Allāh be pleased with him, said: "The senior amongst the companions of Allāh's messenger forbade us (saying), "Do not revile your rulers (umarā), nor act dishonestly with them, nor hate them and have taqwa of Allāh and be patient - for verily the matter is close (at hand)."
Its chain of narration is jayyid
(good) and all of its narrators are thiqāt (precise, reliable and trustworthy).
(As-sunnah of ibn Abi 'Aasim, 2/488)
- Yahya ibn Yamaan said: "Sufyaan (ath-Thawree) narrated to us from Qais ibn Wahb from Anas ibn Malik, may Allāh be pleased with him, that he said: "The most senior of the companions of the messenger of Allāh used to forbid us from abusing and reviling the rulers (umarā),"
(Ibn 'Abdul-Barr reported it in at-Tamheed, 21/287)
- Ibn abee 'Asim reported from Abul-Yamaan al-Hawzaniyy from Abud-Dardaa, (may Allāh be pleased with him), that he said, "Beware of cursing the rulers (wullaat), for verily, cursing them is clipping (i.e. of the religion) and hating them is barrenness." It was said, 'O Abu Dardaa, then how should we behave when we see in them that which we do not like?" He said, "Have patience, for verily when Allāh sees that from you He will take them away from you with death."
(As-Sunnah, 2/488. All narrators thiqaat save Abul-Yamaan al-Hawzaniyy but Ibn Hibban included him in his Ath-Thiqaat and Hafidh ibn al-Hajr said about him, 'Maqbool (i.e. his narrations are acceptable)
- And in at-Taareekh al-Kabeer of Imam al-Bukhari who reports from Abu Jamrah ad-Dubai'yy who said,"When news of the burning of the House reached me, I left for Makkah and visited Ibn 'Abbas, (may Allāh be pleased with him) (there) frequently until he recognised me and was amicable to me. Then I reviled al-Hajjaaj in the presence of Ibn 'Abbas and he said, "Do not be a helper to shaytaan."
(At-Taareekh al-Kabeer, 8/104)
- Anas ibn Malik, may Allāh be pleased with him, said: "The most senior amongst us from among the companions of Allāh's messenger forbade us that we should not revile our rulers (umarā), nor to be dishonest with them, nor to disobey them (but) to have patience and to have taqwa of Allāh, the Mighty and Majestic, for verily the matter is close (at hand)."
(Al-Hafidh Abul-Qasim al-Asbahanee in his book at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb, 3/68)
- Ibn 'Abdul-Barr reported with his isnaad from Abu Dardaa, may Allāh be pleased with him, that he said: "Verily, the first (appearance) of the hypocrisy of a man is his censure and rebuke of his ruler (Imaam)."
- Abu Nu'aym reports as does Ibn Abid-Dunya from Zaa'idah ibn Qudaamah who said, "I said to Mansoor ibn al-Mu'tamir, "When I am fasting can I revile the ruler (Sultān)?" He said, "No." I then said, "Then can I revile the people of desires (innovators)?" He said, "Yes".
(Al-Hilyah of Abu Nu'aym, 5/41-42 and As-Samt wa Aadaabil-Lisaan of Ibn Abid-Dunya, p.145)
- Ibn 'Abdul-Barr reports from Abu Ishaq as-Sabai'iyy that he said: "Never do a people revile their ruler (ameer) except that they are prevented from his goodness."